EL Research and Resources

The SIOP is a research-based observation instrument that has been shown to be a valid and reliable measure of sheltered instruction (Guarino, Echevarria, Short, Schick, Forbes, & Rueda, 2001). The SIOP is also used as a model for lesson planning and implementation of high quality sheltered instruction. All features of the SIOP model are aligned with current research on instruction for ELs. Details of the alignment can be found in Figure E.3 on page 187 of the “Implementing the SIOP Model through Effective Professional Development and Coaching”

In a study examining the effects of the SIOP Model on student achievement, students whose teachers implemented the SIOP model to a high degree in middle school classes outperformed those students in sheltered classes whose teachers were unfamiliar with the model.

To view the abstract or purchase this article from the Journal of Educational Research, click here.

For a white paper on the SIOP by two of the original SIOP model authors, please click here.

To view a reference list of the SIOP Model research base and other SIOP Model publications and resources, please click on the link below:

Resources on Sheltered Instruction

A research brief from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality released in July 2010 focused on evaluations of Special ED and EL teachers. On page 18 the authors reference SIOP as being a framework to use to evaluate EL teachers. For more details on this brief, please click on the link below to view as a PDF file.

National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality

Upcoming Research Studies on SIOP

There are several large scale research studies currently in progress by the Center for Applied Linguistics on SIOP. Results from these studies have not yet been published. For more information on the studies visit the Center for Applied Linguistics.

“Academic Literacy through Sheltered Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary Schools.” Funders: Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Rockefeller Foundation

“The Impact of the SIOP Model on Middle School Science and Language Learning.” Funders: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences

“Success through Academic Interventions in Language & Literacy: Mathematics and the SIOP Model.” Funders: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences

Abstracts of SIOP Research Studies Presented at the 2008 American Educational Research Association Conference.

Please note that the studies listed below are in preparation for publication. Once the studies are published updated citations will be posted.

“Cognitive Coaching: A Critical Phase for Implementing Professional Development in Sheltered Instruction.”

By Ellen G. Batt

This documentary account describes a professional development program for mainstream in-service teachers serving significant populations of English Language Learners (ELLs) and students from low socio-economic backgrounds. The purpose of the project was to monitor the effectiveness of professional development in Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) and to assess the value of cognitive coaching. Findings from the quantitative and qualitative data analysis indicated that workshops were effective and produced strong commitment for the SIOP model, but resulted in a disappointing level of implementation without a coaching phase. Results illustrate the criticality of the cognitive coaching phase and include data that are capable of informing similar professional development efforts to improve instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse students.

“Student Learning in Sheltered Instruction Classrooms.”

By Ellen McIntrye, Diane W. Kyle, Marco A. Munoz, Cheng-Ting Chen, and Scott Beldon

The purpose of this study was to examine the learning of K-12 English language learners in classrooms in which teachers implemented a popular sheltered instruction model compared to students who had not received instruction in the model. The teachers had participated in an 18 month professional development project during which they learned about the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2004). Students in-fully implemented SIOP classrooms achieved better on a reading measure than students not exposed to the model. The professional development has focused on reading strategies as they applied to content instruction.

Best Practices for Teaching English Learners

Institute of Educational Sciences (IES) staff selected a panel of 13 experts to synthesize rigorous research and write a report on what the research says about developing literacy in second-language learners. The executive summary of the report, Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth, contains the major findings and recommendations of the panel. To download the report click the link below.

Institute of Educational Science created a practice guide on Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades. The practice guide provides five recommendations and strategies for improving the reading achievement and English language development of English Learners in the elementary grades. The practice guide can be downloaded from the IES website.

In Summer 2008, Claude Goldenberg published an article in American Educator summarizing what the research says about teaching ELLs. Goldenberg primarily relies on the findings from the National Literacy Panel and CREDEs research brief (both references cited above). The article can be downloaded from the link below.

The Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence has a collection of research about language learning and academic achievement.

Read the research brief on Teaching Secondary Language Minority Students, to learn four things teachers should do to support language development in secondary school learners; for example, how to help Tommy, a 7th grader who has not been in school since he completed 5th grade in his native country.

Resources for Teaching English Learners

Center on Instruction provides resources for educators in reading, math, science, special education, and English language learning. Educators can find information on topic-based materials, syntheses of recent research, and exemplars of best practices.

The Internet Public Library provides a wealth of resources categorized by content areas, including arts and humanities, business and economics, social sciences, and science and technology.

Examine literacy related to a variety of content disciplines at the Content Literacy Information Consortium.

Reading Resources

The International Reading Association sponsors programs that cover a wide range of reading-related topics, from early childhood literacy to the diagnosis of reading disabilities and the training of reading professionals. Abstracts and selected articles from its publications — including The Reading Teacher, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, and Reading Research Quarterly — are available on its web site.

Reviewers at Children’s Literature read and critically review more than 3,000 books each year to help teachers, librarians, and parents make appropriate literary choices for children. Visit the Themed Reviews page for book reviews in such categories as women scientists, Johnny Appleseed, famous African Americans, and space exploration.

News for Students and Educators

Indiana University School of Education maintains a Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication. In the clearinghouse there is reading research, news, lesson plans, web resources, and a family information center.

Resources from Schools

The Sarasota County Public School District in Florida dedicates a section of its web site to Meeting the Secondary Reading Challenge: Interdisciplinary Reading in the Content Areas.

The Schools of California Online Resources for Education provides a teacher activity bank on its Language Arts CyberGuides, with information about graphic organizers, literature, rubrics, and types of journals (such as metacognitive, learning log, double-entry, and reflective).

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA). This is the only place on the web to access state-by-state policies and resources as well as compiled information on meeting the educational needs of linguistically and culturally diverse students in the U.S.

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